Understanding Violence Against Transgender Individuals
Michael Munson, Rebecca Waggoner  -  2012/6/6
http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/ovcproviderforum
 
 
As a ranking officer and LGBTQ liaison for my police department, what is the best practice when arresting a transgendered person and placing them in a holding cell? Is it best to place them in their own cell or in a cell with people of the same gender?
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt7. The FORGE webinar schedule for the first year is available online on our website at: http://forge-forward.org/trainings-events/upcoming-webinars
 
2.  michael munson
 Pt6. FORGE is hosting a series of webinars beginning in June 2012. Some topics may be especially of interest to law enforcement, particularly November 8, 2012's The intersections of sex work and violence. One of the primary reasons transgender people are arrested is for sex work. 11 percent of all transgender people and 44 percent of African-American trans people have engaged in sex work at some point in their lives. The sex work webinar will address issues of police involvement and how communities can work together with law enforcement to reduce the number of arrests and increase trans peoples' ability to hold more traditional employment.
 
3.  GH-Rebecca
 Sorry for the late response...In Minnesota, we have worked to get the Department of Corrections to recognize that trans folks in prison settings are often extremely unsafe. Now, we have a team from the DOC complete an evaluation of the prisoner's safety and where they are in their transition process. trans folks who are entering the corrections systemprison are then assigned housing based upon those factors. Additionally, one of our primary focuses in Minnesota is prisoner healthcare and the continuation of prescribed hormones, etc.
 
4.  michael munson
 Pt5. 115.42 Use of screening information.(f) Transgender and intersex inmates shall be given the opportunity to shower separately from other inmates. (g) The agency shall not place lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex inmates in dedicated facilities, units, or wings solely on the basis of such identification or status, unless such placement is in a dedicated facility, unit, or wing established in connection with a consent decree, legal settlement, or legal judgment for the purpose of protecting such inmates.
 
5.  michael munson
 Pt4. 115.42 Use of screening information. (c) In deciding whether to assign a transgender or intersex inmate to a facility for male or female inmates, and in making other housing and programming assignments, the agency shall consider on a case-by-case basis whether a placement would ensure the inmates health and safety, and whether the placement would present management or security problems. (d) Placement and programming assignments for each transgender or intersex inmate shall be reassessed at least twice each year to review any threats to safety experienced by the inmate. (e) A transgender or intersex inmates own views with respect to his or her own safety shall be given serious consideration.
 
6.  michael munson
 Pt3. Recently, PREA (Prison Rape Elimination Act) came out with specific guidelines re screening and housing trans inmates. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/programs/pdfs/prea_final_rule.pdf pages 204 and 205. 115.42 Use of screening information. (a) The agency shall use information from the risk screening required by 115.41 to inform housing, bed, work, education, and program assignments with the goal of keeping separate those inmates at high risk of being sexually victimized from those at high risk of being sexually abusive. (b) The agency shall make individualized determinations about how to ensure the safety of each inmate.
 
7.  michael munson
 Pt 2. Due to a high volume of trans individuals arrested in LA, they have created a special section where trans people are heldhoused. This is not possible in most communities. Generally, transgender people -- especially people on the male-to-female spectrum -- are least likely to experience violence against them if they are placed in a single cell alone. This, of course, is not always possible.
 
8.  michael munson
 Pt1b. 3) Of those who have chosen to transition from one binary gender to another, only 59 have changed their driver's license. This is relevant only because some police departments have policies that dictate that a person should be placed in a cell based on their legal documentation. If their driver's license has F (female), but the person identifies as male and expresses themselves in a masculine way (as well as others perceiving that person to be male), placing this individual with women would potentially be unsafe. Other jurisdictions use a process of genital sorting -- or placing individuals based on their surgical/non-surgical status. Some discuss with the person the options and mutually determine what's best for their safety.
 
9.  michael munson
 Pt1. Thanks for bringing attention to the fact that transgender people can both be victims of crimes and also people who commit crimes. Several things come to mind as preface statements before addressing where to hold a trans person. 1) All too often, transgender people seek help from police because they have been victimized and end up being arrested (either justly or sometimes not); 2) All too often, as well, transgender people experience violence from police who are either not culturally competent in treating transgender people respectfully, or who may simply be biased against trans people and treat individuals unfairly; and...
 
 
What are practical changes we can make with first responders to crime victims (police, EMTs, etc.) to get them to respect trans people and the gender they identify as? I see so many awful stories in the news about people refusing to use their preferred name/gender, especially if a drivers license or ID hasn't been updated. That kind of revictimization is terrible and can deter people from getting help when they need it.
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt4. 2. Multiple resources. Transgender Community of Police and Sheriffs. http://www.tcops-international.org/index.html 3. Transgender Basics. New York Gay and Lesbian Centers Gender Identity Project. www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXI9w0PbBXY (20 minute video)4. FORGEs Transgender 101 webinar (archived). (90 minutes) http://forge-forward.org/event/trans101-june2012
 
2.  michael munson
 Pt3. There are a couple of resources specifically for police, other law enforcement, EMTs. Some trans advocates are not in favor of some of these resources, while others praise them. Anything that will help officers be aware that their behavior MIGHT be disrespectful or retraumatizing may be enough to encourage behavioral change. Some of these can be viewed during roll call or other staff meetings. 1. Transgender Training Video (10-minute roll call video). Chicago Police Department http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=58JMQmS-vno
 
3.  michael munson
 Exactly, Rebecca. One of the positives of starting meetings with everyone introducing themselves by name and stating their pronoun preference is that it lets people self-identify and may provide an opportunity for discussion if people have never experienced stating their pronoun. This process normalizes asking the question about pronouns, which makes it easier to have dialogue about pronouns with other people (clients/victims/survivors). Similarly, another way this helps people understand the importance of asking the questions is that they are able to state the name they want to be called. For example, a person may strongly prefer to be called Robert (even if others tend to shorten his name to Bob).
 
4.  GH-Rebecca
 I agree that the term training is overused and I too believe that it is an important element in the skills toolbox necessary to create climate change. I do a great deal of training with law enforcement and other systems professionals and one thing that I consistently find it that for some people, the idea of gender has never been explored or questioned; that there is simply a baseline lack of knowledge. One way of modeling what Michael was speaking about is to simply ask at every meeting you go to during the introduction phase of the meeting for people to say their name and preferred gender pronouns. this may necessitate a brief discussion for people who have never been asked this question before. however, it can be an excellent site to begin future discussions.
 
5.  michael munson
 Pt2. For those who are on SART or other teams/committees with different types of professionals, it is often useful to have transgender issues infused within conversations, trainings, case studies. This is an excellent opportunity for people who are trans-knowledgeable to model appropriate and respectful behavior. For example, you could help literally model how to ask someone what pronoun and name a victim prefers if you were discussing a case or role playing. For the most part, professionals who act inappropriate are usually unaware of what they should be doing. It is far better to teach people how to act (appropriately), than to tell people they are not doing something right.
 
6.  michael munson
 Pt1. Yes, the revictimization, disrespect and embarrassment that people often feel when being addressed by a non-preferred pronoun or name can and does deter people from seeing help when they need it. Training is an overused word, but if staff are regularly trained, many will make appropriate changes in their behavior immediately. Training is rarely enough, though. Agencies must also have strong internal policies that detail what behavior is expected of their staff and what actions will be taken if a staff member expresses bias or inappropriate behavior.
 
 
Several California Domestic Violence agencies have been participating in conference calls about the ways we have or will provide shelter to transgender clients who need to get out of violent relationships. We want to offer shelter & write policies for our shelters such that we do not expose a client who identifies as transgender to further emotional violence from staff or from other shelter residents. We're looking at recommendations from The Network la Red and some homeless shelters so far. My agency is in a rural county where many members of the LGBTTQQ communities are closeted so reaching out for help may feel like a huge risk for the transgender client. Any input you can give is much appreciated.
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt6. FORGE has a few resources coming up that may be useful.3 webinars: 1. Sex segregated services: Finding resources for transgender clients (August 9, 2012). 2. Safety planning specific to transgender individuals (January 10, 2013). 3. Creating a trans-welcoming environment (February 14, 2013). Descriptions and sign up information is available at www.forge-forward.org/webinars.
 
2.  michael munson
 Pt5. Since sometimes sheltering non-female individuals is a systemic challenge in some communities - even with advocates and administrators who work tirelessly to change policies, procedures and systems -- safety planning and other creative means of finding safe shelter is necessary. The links previously listed are excellent guides to model policies.
 
3.  GH-Rebecca
 These are excellent resources!
 
4.  michael munson
 pt4. 2. Virginia Anti-Violence Project's Model Policies http://www.avp.org/documents/VAVPModelPolicies.pdf 3. Transitioning Our Shelters: A GUIDE TO MAKING HOMELESS SHELTERS SAFE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLE by Lisa Mottet and John M. Ohle http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/reports/TransitioningOurShelters.pdf 4. Invisible Men: FTMs and Homelessness in Toronto The FTM Safer Shelter Project Research Team. June 2008 http://wellesleyinstitute.com/files/invisible-men.pdf
 
5.  michael munson
 Pt3. Here are some resources that might be helpful. Some are directly relevant, and others (on homeless shelters), may have material to draw on.1. Mandatory and Recommended Shelter Policies from the Transgender Shelter Access ProjectColorado Anti-Violence Project http://www.coavp.org
 
6.  michael munson
 Pt2. It is critical for agencies to have protocols for addressing bias (by staff and residents). For example, most shelters would not tolerate racism (from their staff or residents). If one resident made a racially offensive comment, staff would likely step in and address the biased comment and resulting behavior. There are effective ways to address bias and conflict, and these principles can easily be applied to anti-trans bias or harm. It may be useful to look at how your agency(ies) have dealt with other differences and determine if how these differences are handled may be a useful guide in working with any challenges or opposition about housing transgender clients.
 
7.  michael munson
 Pt1. Thank you for your concern for transgender IPV survivors. I am glad you have already reached out to The Network La Red, since they have worked extensively in creating policies and working with shelters to house transgender survivors. Trans people in shelter DO experience high rates of violence (verbal, emotional, physical, sexual) while in shelter from both staff and other residents. Rates of violence tend to be higher for people on the male-to-female spectrum. (For statistics, see the 2011 report Injustice at Every Turn -- http://www.endtransdiscrimination.org)
 
 
In what ways are privacy accommodations different for this population in comparison to others such as those with disabilities, nursing mothers, etc.
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt3. I encourage all providers to be aware of privacy laws and practices that are important for all clients. Some professions have more stringent rules than others, but awareness of typical and expected privacy practices will help everyone feel more secure and respected. Trans people may be more concerned about privacy issues because of previous experiences of having their privacy not respected, or fears around how lack of privacy can lead to increased risks and danger. Due to possibly increased concerns around privacy, an overt discussion with the client about how your agency protects clients' privacy may be especially useful.
 
2.  michael munson
 Pt2. One example of how this may impact privacy could be in a waiting room setting where others may be able to overhear conversations. For example, if a client is sitting in a waiting room and the staff calls out for John Smith, this may violate the privacy of this client if the client's preferred name is Jane and she is seen by others in the waiting room as female. In this case, the privacy issue is how to keep Jane's legal name on her documentations private and not publicly disclosed.
 
3.  michael munson
 Pt1. In many ways, privacy accommodations are no different for trans people compared to other populations. If everyone's privacy is considered important and protected, there is not much need to take additional measures. There might be a couple of exceptions -- or nuances -- for trans people. Only 59 of trans people who have transitioned have updated driver's licenses that reflect their preferred name and gender. Only 39 of people who have transitioned have health insurance cards in their preferred name. Because of these discrepancies between their documentation and identity, there may be some issues around privacy that inadvertently become more public.
 
 
If privacy considerations are not significantly different accross special interest groups, would a more gloabal strategy addressing privacy concerns be more appropriate than programs targeting specific groups.
 
1.  michael munson
 FORGE frequently trains on and discusses the concept of universal design and how it benefits both trans and non-trans people. If a system is set up to sensitively and effectively work with the most marginalized population, that system will also sensitively and effectively work with others who are not marginalized or who might be experiencing different challenges or needs. In medical settings, for example, everyone should be entitled to and receive the same level of privacy and confidentiality. HIPAA has regulated this and given providers a model to follow. For other professionals (advocates, administrators, first responders), if they, too, treat everyone with the same level of privacy this will well-serve transgender individuals.
 
 
Are DV shelters doing anything in particular to make transgender individuals welcome?
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt3. These resources were posted to another question, but may be relevant here: 1. Mandatory and Recommended Shelter Policies from the Transgender Shelter Access ProjectColorado Anti-Violence Project http://www.coavp.org 2. Virginia Anti-Violence Project's Model Policies http://www.avp.org/documents/VAVPModelPolicies.pdf 3. Transitioning Our Shelters: A GUIDE TO MAKING HOMELESS SHELTERS SAFE FOR TRANSGENDER PEOPLEby Lisa Mottet and John M. Ohle http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/reports/TransitioningOurShelters.pdf 4. Invisible Men: FTMs and Homelessness in Toronto The FTM Safer Shelter Project Research Team. June 2008 http://wellesleyinstitute.com/files/invisible-men.pdf
 
2.  GH-Rebecca
 Additionally, here in Minnesota we are working with the Opening the Door Collective (OTD) which is a pilot project out of Cornerstone, a local DV shelter. The goal of the project is to increase access for all marginalized communities when receiving IPVDV services and shelter. We have an LGBTQ specific subgroup within the Collective that is working specifically to address these issues!
 
3.  michael munson
 Some shelters are extremely proactive in creating policies and practices that welcome and create a safe environment for trans survivors. See the question below (Several California Domestic Violence agencies... for some additional resources.
 
 
Will listening to this webinar aid me in representing a transgender teen in a care & protection matter? My (his) goal is to keep him safe in the system so he can graduate HS & get aid for college...he's already in a safe placement
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt2. Id like to take this opportunity to remind people that FORGE provides individualized technical assistance, which may be particularly helpful in talking through a particular case you may have. Contact us at 414-559-2123 or AskFORGE@FORGE-forward.org.
 
2.  francine v
 Thanks, I was just brainstorming...no specifics. I'm glad my state has a home for TG kids!
 
3.  michael munson
 I am glad to hear the teen is already in a safe placement. Can you be more specific about your concerns? Where are you concerned about his safety in the system (i.e. which system)?
 
 
Hello - as faculty/administrators on a residential university campus, what advice can you offer us on how to address issues of reporting and prevention in this setting?
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt2. If your university has an LGBT Center or other LGBT groups, you might want to consider asking to speak about victimization and prevention issues there. FORGEs research shows that many transgender people pay attention to which agencies have done outreach to the transgender community, so one presentation may go a long way.
 
2.  michael munson
 Encouraging reporting is a challenge for any population. One thing we've found is that if a trans victim MIGHT consider the possibility of reporting, the more support they have (advocate, friends), the more likely they will be to actually go through with reporting. It is often also important for trans victims to know what their rights are. An overwhelming number of trans people believe that, for example, if they report a sexual assault that they will be required to go through with a forensic exam. If there is an educational process in place, it will help give trans victims some control (which they've already lost through the violence) and they may then choose to report.
 
 
Is prevention of and response to violence in this area best accomplished through a traditional law enforcement response, public health response or a hybrid approach.
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt3. What trauma-informed practice tells us is that a critical practice that helps victims heal is helping them regain control over their lives, including making decisions about what happens next. Given this understanding, it makes sense to us that victims should be offered multiple options.
 
2.  GH-Rebecca
 We also believe in a multifaceted approach to this work...changing one system will not necessarily increase safety, etc. However, as Michael discussed, the local work that has been completed with CeCe McDonald is an amazing example of how groups working together from a variety of anglesinterests can indeed change the community.
 
3.  michael munson
 Pt2. FORGE believes that communities are deeply impacted by any singular act of violence against a transgender person. For example, a recent case of anti-trans violence is Cece McDonald (http://supportcece.wordpress.com). Although this case is complex -- please do read more about it -- one important component is how the trans community (and others!) have mobilized to respond to the events that happened to her. The response to the violence against her, and her self-defense in response to that violence, is what is creating social change. One way it has broader change implications, for example, is how her case is being compared to Trayvon Martin -- so trans issues are more understandable to people who are not already familiar with trans issues.
 
4.  michael munson
 Pt 1. Prevention of violence against trans people must come from multiple angles, approaches, and through repetitive messaging. Anti-transgender violence is societal issue and one not solved through any one system (e.g. law enforcement, public health), although all systems should be engaged and involved. Education and prevention messaging can come through positive actions churches take, or through stances that public schools have on bullying, or through how law enforcement responds to bias-based crimes, and through many other forums.
 
 
How do you understand violence against transgender individuals in the context of children/youth? What are ways of protecting children/youth who are gender non-conforming from gendered violence? What support/advocacy networks do you know of (possibly in your area) that use preventative measures to protect transgender children/youth?
 
1.  GH-Rebecca
 In Minneapolis, we are extremely fortunate to have organizations such as the Trans Youth Support Network (TYSN), the Transgender Health Coalition, the University of Minnesota's Program in Human Sexuality and private practice therapists such as Reclaim doing this work! We recognize that there is no one right way to create safety in the lives of transgnc youth and that, once again, it is important to create a network of resources to address these issues. I apologize for not listing all of the amazing orgs in the Twin Cities working with trans youth btw!
 
2.  michael munson
 Another resource you may want to review is the Trans Youth Family Allies website. Their Executive Director, Kim Pearson, is a dynamic individual who is well connected to resources for trans youth all across the country. http://imatyfa.org
 
3.  michael munson
 There are a growing number of resources that address transgender non-conforming (GNC) youth.Protecting children -- transGNC and non-trans -- is a difficult task in todays world. There is an increased focus on schools, families, after school programs, community groups, faith-based communities, etc. to create safer environments for *all* youth.One resource you may want to review is NCTEGLSEN's document: MODEL DISTRICT POLICY ON TRANSGENDER AND GENDER NONCONFORMING STUDENTS, which you can find online at http://transequality.org/Resources/ModelຈDistrictຈTransຈandຈGNCຈPolicyຈFINAL.pdf
 
 
What are the challenges that trans-gender individuals face when re-entering the work force after being subject to violence?
 
1.  julie.graham
 That is really sad that people would have to have two therapists and it speaks to the reality that transgender people getting help means twice as much work. It's so hard to just walk into a clinic or office and put oneself out there knowing you're likely to be misunderstood. Possibly be seen as exotic and have to educate the therapist. Sigh.
 
2.  michael munson
 Additionally - following up to what Julie mentioned: FORGE has found that frequently trans people have two therapists or mental health providers: One to discuss trauma-based issues with and one to discuss transgender issues. Often, the trans person will not discuss trans issues with the trauma therapist (because it often results in master status diversion -- where the provider will focus on trans content rather than what the client is seeking services for: healing from violence).
 
3.  michael munson
 Exactly, Julie. Because of the community nature within which many trans people live, when violence happens to one individual, there can be pervasive fear within the community, which can either be paralyzing or mobilizing.
 
4.  julie.graham
 On issuse is that many mental health providers are ill equipped to understand the complexity of violence directed at trans people and the destabilizing impact for the entire community of trans people. So an individual act of violence raises the fear and vigilance of all trans people.
 
5.  michael munson
 pt 3. Just a small piece of data. NCTE (National Center for Transgender Equality) conducted a very large survey in 2011. Results from 6400 transgender people indicated that 6 had experienced sexual violence AT WORK. For those individuals who are undocumented, the rate of sexual violence was 19.
 
6.  michael munson
 pt 2. One challenge for trans survivors might be lack of adequate support. Since a high number of trans people are either not employed or do not have health care coverage, they may not be able to access mental health services. Many, too, do not know about support services that are free. If you work at an agency that offers free services, we encourage you to advertise that the services are free or low cost. Of course, many trans people fear seeking services, even if they have insurance (or the services are free), because they have experienced poor quality care (abuse or ignorance) when they have sought services in the past.
 
7.  michael munson
 pt1. It is difficult for anyone to resume their normal routine after experiencing violence. Many trans people are unemployed due to anti-transgender biasdiscrimination and those who are employed may experience anti-transgender discrimination on the job, which may re-traumatize them and make functioning even more difficult.
 
 
Are there awareness and assistance programs designed to meet the needs of LGBT teens, especially those in rural communities?
 
1.  michael munson
 Perry, there are several national coalitions that help coordinate the work of LGBT organizations, including those focusing on LGBT youth. Most T or LGBT organizations want to better the lives of the people we work for - so will pool our expertise and find ways of stretching grant dollars, volunteer input, and any other resources we have access to.
 
2.  michael munson
 Perry - I think it is growing more and more common for a couple of reasons: 1) Funders encourage collaboration and projects that involved multiple non-profits seem to be receiving funding at higher rates than solo-applicants; 2) There is a strong commitment right now to LGBTQ youth (as well as a strong cultural awareness about LGBTQ people of all ages). More and more, I see agencies forming work groups to address specific issues, as well as the LGBTQ community initiating projects that encourage non-profit participation. Together, we can make a much larger impact than if we work in isolation.
 
3.  Perry Schwartz
 How likely is it that the many non-profits working on behalf of LGBT teens, and other age groups, would pool their expertise and resources to further assist the LGBT community?
 
4.  GH-Rebecca
 Part 2: As a result of this work, we now have GSA (Gay-Straight Alliance) organizations throughout Minnesota working to provide support and education. Additionally, we are working on a comprehensive anti-bullying law at the legislative level.
 
5.  GH-Rebecca
 Yes there are. Here at OutFront Minnesota, we have helped to create the Safe Schools for All Coalition as well as the Minnesota School Outreach Coalition to provide support and education to youth and staff within school and community settings. Minnesota has been rocked the past few years with an alarming number of LGBTQ youth suicides relating to bullying.
 
6.  michael munson
 There are more and more agencies that are taking on the needs of LGBTQ teens - in both rural and urban areas. One agency that does excellent work with rural communities AND is also extremely (LGBQ) and T-informed is the Resource Sharing Project. www.resourcesharingproject.org
 
 
Are there any resources specific to family violence against transgender individuals, like child abuse or DV?
 
1.  michael munson
 Julie - We are still processing the data from the survey. n 1005. We have completed the majority of the analysis, but still need to process many of the qualitative responses. Please check the FORGE website (or sign up for our notification email list) to be notified of when the publication(s) is available. www.forge-forward.org
 
2.  julie.graham
 Is it possible to get a copy of the research on violence that you guys have been doing? Where will that be published?
 
3.  michael munson
 The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) is an excellent resource, too. Both FORGE and OutFront MN (Rebecca's agency) are members of NCAVP. http://www.avp.org/ncavp.htm
 
4.  michael munson
 pt2. I'd also encourage you to review the publication Injustice at Every Turn -- http://www.endtransdiscrimination.org. This document doesn't have a lot of data on family violence, but it has some. It also documents where and how some non-trans loved ones have been affected by anti-trans violence, as well as the role of the support of families.
 
5.  michael munson
 pt1. FORGE just completed an OVC-funded, IRB-approved research of trans individuals that asked some basic demographic questions about what types of violence people experienced. (The majority of the research was about what people perceived to be barriers.) We specifically asked about childhood abuse, adult sexual assault, dating violence, intimate partner violence, stalking and hate crimes. An overwhelming number of individuals experienced multiple forms of violence. Polyvictimization rates ranged from 63.5 to 88.4 percent.
 
 
What can we do as allies get rid of the fear and ignorance regarding transgender individuals? I feel more media attention would only be negative, are there oter outreach campaigns that could be done?
 
1.  GH-Rebecca
 I disagree that media coverage will be inherently negative. However, I do agree with Michael about the importance of inclusion. Positive images of any community that is different than one's own can significantly increase larger social acceptance of that community. I also encourage people and organizations to use images of trans folks when talking about services, work etc. with the LGBT communities. too often, we rely solely on the L and G relegating the B and the T to further invisibility.
 
2.  michael munson
 Pt2. I do believe that incremental social change can make an enormous difference. Talking about trans issues in general conversation. Bringing kids to films that may have trans characters and then discussing those films and issues afterwards, can help shift how people feel about trans people. One of the things FORGE does in our trainings is to include many images of trans people. We have overt permission to use their images, but it allows trainees to see very vibrant trans people and it shifts their (possible) preconceived ideas of who trans people are and what trans people look like. It makes trans people more human.
 
3.  michael munson
 Great question and one that likely needs much more discussion than this space will allow. One resource of a campaign that portrays trans people and families in a very positive light -- and is great for use in educational tools for staff -- is MTPC's I Am Trans campaign http://www.transpeoplespeak.org
 
 
What type of services are available for youth who identify as as the opposite sex but are minors whose parents deny their child the opportunity to receive services (via insurance, etc.) because the parents are in denial?
 
1.  michael munson
 Pt2. A great resource for youth and those who care about trans youth is the Trans Youth Family Allies website. http://imatyfa.org
 
2.  Katy Griffin
 TransActive is an internationally recognized non-profit focused on serving the diverse needs of transgender (TG) and gender nonconforming (GNC) children, youth, their families and allies.
 
3.  michael munson
 One resource is the Family Acceptance Project which teaches parents how their opposition to their child's gender identity may lead them to many risky behaviors, including suicide. The website is: http://familyproject.sfsu.edu
 
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